Stabyourself.net Wiki
Stabyourself.net Wiki
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[[File:Maurice icon.jpg|thumb|184px|right|Maurice's usual avatar]]
 
[[File:Maurice icon.jpg|thumb|184px|right|Maurice's usual avatar]]
{{quote|PRETTY MUCH EVERYTHING BY MAURICE GUÉGAN AND IF SOMETHING ISN'T BY ME THEN IT SHOULD BE OBVIOUS OR NOBODY CARES|Maurice|[[Mari0]]'s source code.}}
 
   
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'''Kim Jong-un'''<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-4">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-4 [4]]</sup> (Korean pronunciation: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_Korean [kim d͡zɔŋʊn]]; born 8 January 1983;<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-NYTRodman_2-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-NYTRodman-2 [2]]</sup> also [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_romanization romanised] as '''Kim Jong-eun''', '''Kim Jong Un''' or '''Kim Jung-eun'''<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-5">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-5 [5]]</sup>) is the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_leader_of_North_Korea supreme leader] of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea], commonly known as North Korea. He is the son of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-il Kim Jong-il] (1941–2011) and the grandson of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Il-sung Kim Il-sung] (1912–1994). He has held the titles of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Secretary_of_the_Workers%27_Party_of_Korea First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea], the Chairman of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Military_Commission_%28DPRK%29 Central Military Commission], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chairman_of_the_National_Defence_Commission_of_North_Korea First Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea], the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Commander_of_the_Korean_People%27s_Army Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army], and presidium member of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politburo_of_the_Workers%27_Party_of_Korea Politburo] of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workers%27_Party_of_Korea Workers' Party of Korea]. He was officially declared the supreme leader following the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_funeral state funeral] for his father on 28 December 2011.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-6">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-6 [6]]</sup> He is the third and youngest son of Kim Jong-il and his [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consort consort] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ko_Young-hee Ko Young-hee].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-7">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-7 [7]]</sup>
'''Maurice Guégan''' is the creator of all games in [http://www.stabyourself.net Stabyourself.net.]
 
   
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From late 2010, Kim Jong-un was viewed as [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heir_apparent heir apparent] to the leadership of the nation, and following his father's death, he was announced as the "Great Successor" by North Korean state television.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-8">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-8 [8]]</sup> At Kim Jong-il's memorial service, North Korean Chairman of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_People%27s_Assembly Supreme People's Assembly] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Yong-nam Kim Yong-nam] declared that "Respected Comrade Kim Jong-un is our party, military and country's supreme leader who inherits great comrade Kim Jong-il's ideology, leadership, character, virtues, grit and courage".<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-WaPo_9-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-WaPo-9 [9]]</sup> On 30 December 2011, the Politburo of the Workers' Party of Korea formally appointed Kim as the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Commander_of_the_Korean_People%27s_Army Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-AFP2011_1-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-AFP2011-1 [1]]</sup> On 11 April 2012, the 4th Party Conference elected him to the newly created post of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Secretary_of_the_Workers%27_Party_of_Korea First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea].
His "resume" is available at [http://guegan.de guegan.de]. This actually just shows some games he made, with no info or anything really.
 
==Quotes==
 
   
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He was promoted to the rank of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshal marshal] of the DPRK in the Korean People's Army on 18 July 2012, consolidating his position as the supreme commander of the armed forces.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-marshall_10-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-marshall-10 [10]]</sup> He obtained two degrees, one in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physics physics] at [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Il-sung_University Kim Il-sung University] and another as an Army officer at the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Il-sung_Military_University Kim Il-sung Military University].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-11">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-11 [11]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-12">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-12 [12]]</sup> On 9 March 2014 Kim Jong-un was elected to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_People%27s_Assembly Supreme People's Assembly]. He was unopposed but voters had the choice of voting yes or no. There was a record turn-out of voters and according to government officials all voted ''yes.'' The election was significant as it was the first time Kim Jong-un had faced an election since inheriting power following the death of his father in 2011.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-KimElectionWin_13-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-KimElectionWin-13 [13]]</sup> At 31 years of age, he is the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_state_leaders#10_youngest_serving_state_leaders world's youngest head of state].
About [[Not Pacman]]:
 
i hate this game
 
http://i.imgur.com/radJ2.png
 
There. Good enough. I'm never playing this shit game again
 
 
Edit: 33.6
 
33.4
 
About the custom levelscreen feature in [[Mari0: SE]] (http://i.imgur.com/X3jZP.png)
 
All these hipsters with their Photostore and whatnot.
 
I stay real with paint.
 
 
Edit:
 
 
I made a wallpaper out of that image for everyone
 
http://i.imgur.com/iD6z5.jpg
 
I added a lens flare because why no
 
About how health should be handled in Mari0:
 
Maybe I should make the screen all red jelly if you get hit,
 
but have your health regenerate so fast that it's impossible to lose.
 
Oh and there's a scripted sequence every 30 seconds with a checkpoint that
 
takes away any sort of suspense. And I'll release 3 DLC maps for $15.
 
About turrets:
 
http://i.imgur.com/4TZjB.gif
 
Too lazy to do proper bullet graphic and the caution animation because this
 
won't be in the game anyway.
 
I hate puzzles that involve turrets, and putting turrets in Mari0 would make people
 
use them in their puzzles.
 
   
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Thanks you convinced me now turrets are totally fun and will be added
 
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==Early life and education==
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No official comprehensive biography on Kim Jong-un has yet been released. Therefore, the only known information on his early life comes from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Korean_defectors defectors] and people who have claimed to witness him abroad, such as in Switzerland. Some of the information has been conflicting and contradictory since his brother [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-chul Kim Jong-chul] was attending school in Switzerland around the same period. Nevertheless, there has been some consensus on information about his early life. North Korean authorities have stated that his birthdate is 8 January 1982, but South Korean intelligence officials believe the actual date is a year later. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Rodman Dennis Rodman] said that the birthdate is 8 January 1983 after meeting the young leader in early September 2013.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-NYTRodman_2-2">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-NYTRodman-2 [2]]</sup>
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According to reports first published in Japanese newspapers, he went to school in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switzerland Switzerland] near [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bern Bern]. First reports claimed he attended the private English-language International School in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%BCmligen Gümligen] near Bern under the name "Chol-pak" or "Pak-chol" from 1993 until 1998.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-14">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-14 [14]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-15">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-15 [15]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-16">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-16 [16]]</sup> He was described as shy, a good student who got along well with his classmates and was a basketball fan.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-gu_17-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-gu-17 [17]]</sup> He was [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaperone_%28social%29 chaperoned] by an older student, who was thought to be his bodyguard.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Welt3985896_18-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Welt3985896-18 [18]]</sup>
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Later, it was reported that Kim Jong-un attended the Liebefeld Steinhölzli school in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%B6niz Köniz] near Bern under the name "Pak-un" or "Un-pak" from 1998 until 2000 as the son of an employee of the Embassy of North Korea. Authorities of Köniz confirmed that a student from North Korea, registered as the son of a member of the Embassy, attended the school from August 1998 till fall 2000, but were unable to give details about his identity. Pak-un first attended a special class for foreign-language children and later attended the regular classes of the 6th, 7th, 8th, and part of the final 9th year, leaving the school abruptly in fall 2000. He was described as a well-integrated and ambitious student who liked to play basketball.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-NZZ1.2748091_19-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-NZZ1.2748091-19 [19]]</sup> However, his grades and attendance rating are reported to have been poor.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-20">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-20 [20]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-21">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-21 [21]]</sup> The ambassador of North Korea in Switzerland, Ri Tcheul, had a close relationship with him and acted as a mentor.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Figaro_22-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Figaro-22 [22]]</sup> One of Pak-un's classmates told reporters that he had told him that he was the son of the leader of North Korea.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-23">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-23 [23]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-ta2909_24-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-ta2909-24 [24]]</sup> According to some reports, Jong-un was described by classmates as a shy child who was awkward with girls and indifferent to political issues but who distinguished himself in sports, and had a fascination with the American [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NBA National Basketball Association] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Jordan Michael Jordan]. One friend claimed that he had been shown pictures of Pak-un with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kobe_Bryant Kobe Bryant] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toni_Kuko%C4%8D Toni Kukoč] taken at an unknown location.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-25">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-25 [25]]</sup>
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In April 2012, new documents came to light indicating that Kim Jong-un had lived in Switzerland since 1991 or 1992, earlier than previously thought.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-26">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-26 [26]]</sup>
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The Laboratory of Anatomic Anthropology at the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Lyon University of Lyon], France, after comparing the picture of the boy Pak-un taken at the Liebefeld Steinhölzli school in 1999 with a picture of Kim Jong-un from 2012 came to the conclusion that the two faces show a conformity of 95%. The head of the institute, Raoul Perrot, a forensic anthropologist, considers it most likely that the two pictures show the same person.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-27">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-27 [27]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-28">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-28 [28]]</sup>
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It is believed that the student at the Gümligen International School was not Kim Jong-un but his elder brother [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-chol Kim Jong-chol]. It is not known whether the student known as Pak-un in Liebefeld Steinhölzli lived in Switzerland prior to 1998.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-cicero_29-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-cicero-29 [29]]</sup> All the children of Kim Jong-il are said to have lived in Switzerland, as well as the mother of the two youngest sons, who lived in Geneva for some time. The Kim clan is also said to organise family meetings in Switzerland at [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Geneva Lake Geneva] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interlaken Interlaken].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Figaro_22-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Figaro-22 [22]]</sup>
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Most analysts agree that Kim Jong-un attended [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Il-sung_University Kim Il-sung University], a leading officer-training school in Pyongyang, from 2002 to 2007.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-NYTProfile_30-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-NYTProfile-30 [30]]</sup>
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For many years, only one confirmed photograph of him was known outside North Korea, apparently taken in the mid-1990s, when he was eleven.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-31">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-31 [31]]</sup> Occasional other supposed images of him surfaced but were often disputed.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-32">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-32 [32]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-33">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-33 [33]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-34">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-34 [34]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-35">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-35 [35]]</sup> It was only in June 2010, shortly before he was given official posts and publicly introduced to the North Korean people, that more pictures were released of Kim, taken when he was attending school in Switzerland.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-36">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-36 [36]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-37">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-37 [37]]</sup> The first official image of him as an adult was a group photograph released on 30 September 2010, at the end of the party conference that effectively anointed him, in which he is seated in the front row, two places from his father. This was followed by newsreel footage of him attending the conference.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-38">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-38 [38]]</sup>
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==Succession==
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===Pre-2010 Party Conference speculation===
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His eldest half-brother, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-nam Kim Jong-nam], had been the favourite to succeed, but reportedly fell out of favour after 2001, when he was caught attempting to enter Japan on a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fake_passport fake passport] to visit [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tokyo_Disneyland Tokyo Disneyland].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-rthk_39-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-rthk-39 [39]]</sup>
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Kim Jong-il's former personal chef, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenji_Fujimoto Kenji Fujimoto], revealed details regarding Kim Jong-un, with whom he had a good relationship,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-40">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-40 [40]]</sup> stating that he was favoured to be his father's successor. Fujimoto also claimed that Jong-un was favored by his father over his elder brother, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-chul Kim Jong-chul], reasoning that Jong-chul is too feminine in character, while Jong-un is "exactly like his father".<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-nyt_41-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-nyt-41 [41]]</sup> Furthermore, Fujimoto stated that "If power is to be handed over then Jong-un is the best for it. He has superb physical gifts, is a big drinker and never admits defeat." Also, according to Fujimoto, Jong-un smokes [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Laurent_Paris Yves Saint Laurent] cigarettes, loves [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnnie_Walker Johnnie Walker] whisky and has a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercedes-Benz_600 Mercedes-Benz 600] Sedan.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-42">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-42 [42]]</sup> When Jong-un was 18, Fujimoto described an episode where Jong-un questioned his lavish lifestyle and asked, "We are here, playing basketball, riding horses, riding Jet Skis, having fun together. But what of the lives of the average people?"<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-nyt_41-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-nyt-41 [41]]</sup> On 15 January 2009 the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Korean South Korean] news agency, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yonhap Yonhap], reported that Kim Jong-il had appointed Kim Jong-un to be his successor.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-rthk_39-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-rthk-39 [39]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-43">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-43 [43]]</sup>
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On 8 March 2009, the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BBC_News BBC] reported rumors that Kim Jong-un was on the ballot for elections to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_People%27s_Assembly Supreme People's Assembly], the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubber_stamp_%28politics%29 rubber stamp parliament] of North Korea.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-44">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-44 [44]]</sup> Subsequent reports indicate that his name did not appear on the list of lawmakers,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-45">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-45 [45]]</sup> but he was later elevated to a mid-level position in the National Defense Commission, which is a branch of the North Korean military.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-46">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-46 [46]]</sup> Reports have also suggested that he is a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetic diabetic] and suffers from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertension hypertension].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-gs_47-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-gs-47 [47]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-huff_48-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-huff-48 [48]]</sup>
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_statues_of_Kim_Il_Sung_and_Kim_Jong_Il_on_Mansu_Hill_in_Pyongyang_%28april_2012%29.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_statues_of_Kim_Il_Sung_and_Kim_Jong_Il_on_Mansu_Hill_in_Pyongyang_%28april_2012%29.jpg]North Koreans bowing to the statues of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Il-sung Kim Il-sung] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-il Kim Jong-il]From 2009, it was understood by foreign diplomatic services that Kim was to succeed his father Kim Jong-il as the head of the Korean Workers' Party and de facto leader of North Korea.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-successor_49-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-successor-49 [49]]</sup> He has been named "Yŏngmyŏng-han Tongji" (영명한 동지), which loosely translates to "Brilliant Comrade".<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-50">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-50 [50]]</sup> His father had also asked embassy staff abroad to pledge loyalty to his son.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-huff_48-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-huff-48 [48]]</sup> There have also been reports that citizens in North Korea were encouraged to sing a newly composed "song of praise" to Kim Jong-un, in a similar fashion to that of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Song_to_General_Kim_Jong-il praise songs relating to Kim Jong-il] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Song_of_General_Kim_Il-sung Kim Il-sung].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-51">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-51 [51]]</sup> Later, in June, Kim was reported to have visited China secretly to "present himself" to the Chinese leadership, who later warned against North Korea conducting another nuclear test.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-52">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-52 [52]]</sup> The Chinese Foreign Ministry has strongly denied that this visit occurred.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-53">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-53 [53]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-54">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-54 [54]]</sup>
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North Korea was later reported to have backed the succession plan, after Kim Jong-il suspended a propaganda campaign to promote his youngest son.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-55">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-55 [55]]</sup> His birthday has since become a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_holidays_in_North_Korea national holiday], celebrated on 8 January, according to a report by a South Korean website.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-56">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-56 [56]]</sup> He was expected to be named on 28 September 2010 as successor to his father as leader of North Korea.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-57">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-57 [57]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-58">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-58 [58]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-59">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-59 [59]]</sup>
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Former U.S. president [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Carter Jimmy Carter] visited China in early September 2010, and discussed the issue of the North Korean leadership succession with Chinese Premier [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wen_Jiabao Wen Jiabao]. According to Carter, Kim Jong-il had said to Wen that Kim Jong-un's prospective promotion to paramount leader of North Korea was "a false rumor from the West".<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-60">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-60 [60]]</sup>
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===Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission===
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Kim Jong-un was made a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daejang daejang], the equivalent of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_%28United_States%29 general] in the United States,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-BBCmodel_61-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-BBCmodel-61 [61]]</sup> on 27 September 2010, a day ahead of a rare [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workers%27_Party_of_Korea Workers' Party of Korea] conference in Pyongyang, the first time North Korean media had mentioned him by name and despite his having no previous military experience.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-62">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-62 [62]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-63">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-63 [63]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-64">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-64 [64]]</sup> Despite the promotion, no further details, including verifiable portraits of Kim, were released.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-65">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-65 [65]]</sup> On 28 September 2010, he was named vice chairman of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Military_Commission_%28DPRK%29 Central Military Commission] and appointed to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Committee_of_the_Workers%27_Party_of_Korea Central Committee of the Workers' Party], in an apparent nod to become the successor to Kim Jong-il.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-66">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-66 [66]]</sup>
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On 10 October 2010, alongside his father, Kim Jong-un attended the ruling Workers' Party's 65th anniversary celebration. This was seen as fully confirming his position as the next leader of the Workers' Party. Unprecedented international press access was granted to the event, further indicating the importance of Kim Jong-un's presence.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-67">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-67 [67]]</sup> In January 2011, the regime began purging around 200 protégés of both Jong-un's uncle-in-law [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jang_Sung-taek Jang Sung-taek] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O_Kuk-ryol O Kuk-ryol], the vice chairman of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Defence_Commission_of_North_Korea National Defence Commission of North Korea], by either detention or execution to further prevent either man from rivaling Jong-un.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-68">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-68 [68]]</sup> In the following months, Kim Jong-un was given more and more prominence as he accompanied Kim Jong-il during several "guidance tours" and received gifts from foreign delegations and personages, an honour traditionally awarded only to the living supreme leader. He was also listed second only to Kim Jong-il himself in the funeral committee for [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jo_Myong-rok Jo Myong-rok].<sup class="Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed citation needed]'']</sup>
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==Ruler of North Korea==
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On 17 December 2011, Kim Jong-il died. Despite the elder Kim's plans, it was not immediately clear after his death whether Jong-un would in fact take full power, and what his exact role in a new government would be.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-69">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-69 [69]]</sup> Some analysts had predicted that when Kim Jong-il died, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jang_Sung-taek Jang Sung-taek] would act as [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regent regent], as Jong-un was too inexperienced to immediately lead the country.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-70">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-70 [70]]</sup> On 25 December 2011, North Korean television showed Jang Sung-taek in the uniform of a general in a sign of his growing sway after the death of Kim Jong-il. A Seoul official familiar with North Korea affairs said it was the first time Jang has been shown on state television in a military uniform. His appearance suggested that Jang had secured a key role in the North's powerful military, which pledged its allegiance to Kim Jong-un.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-71">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-71 [71]]</sup>
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The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Korea%27s_cult_of_personality cult of personality] around Kim Jong-un was stepped up following his father's death. He was hailed as the "great successor to the revolutionary cause of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juche Juche]", "outstanding leader of the party, army and people"<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-72">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-72 [72]]</sup> and "respected comrade who is identical to Supreme Commander Kim Jong-il",<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-73">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-73 [73]]</sup> and was made chairman of the Kim Jong-il funeral committee. The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_Central_News_Agency Korean Central News Agency] described Kim Jong-un as "a great person born of heaven", a propaganda term only his father and grandfather had enjoyed,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-74">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-74 [74]]</sup> while the ruling Workers' Party said in an editorial: "We vow with bleeding tears to call Kim Jong-un our supreme commander, our leader."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-75">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-75 [75]]</sup>
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He was publicly declared [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Commander_of_the_Korean_People%27s_Army Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army] on 24 December 2011<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-bbc24_76-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-bbc24-76 [76]]</sup> and formally appointed to the position on 30 December when the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party "courteously proclaimed that the dear respected Kim Jong Un, vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission of the WPK, assumed the supreme commandership of the Korean People's Army".<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-AFP2011_1-2">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-AFP2011-1 [1]]</sup>
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Revolutionary_Martyrs_Cemetery_32.JPG][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Revolutionary_Martyrs_Cemetery_32.JPG][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutionary_Martyrs%27_Cemetery Revolutionary Martyrs' Cemetery] in Pyongyang, 2012On 26 December 2011, the leading North Korean newspaper ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodong_Sinmun Rodong Sinmun]'' announced that Kim Jong-un had been acting as chairman of the Central Military Commission,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-autogenerated1_77-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-autogenerated1-77 [77]]</sup> and supreme leader of the country, following his father's demise.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-78">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-78 [78]]</sup>
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On 9 January 2012, a large rally was held by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_People%27s_Army armed forces] in front of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumsusan_Memorial_Palace Kumsusan Memorial Palace] to honor Kim Jong-un and demonstrate loyalty.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-79">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-79 [79]]</sup>
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On 27 March 2012, Kim was elected to the Fourth Conference of the Workers' Party of Korea, that elected him first secretary, a newly made position, on 11 April. This position replaced the post of general secretary, which was awarded "eternally" to Kim Jong-il. At the conference, Kim Jong-un also took his father's seats as Politburo Presidium member and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-80">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-80 [80]]</sup> In a speech made prior to the Conference, Kim Jong-un declared that "Imbuing the whole society with Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism is the highest programme of our Party". On 13 April 2012, the 5th Session of the 12th Supreme People's Assembly appointed Kim Jong-un [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chairman_of_the_National_Defence_Commission_of_North_Korea First Chairman of the National Defence Commission].
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On 15 April 2012, during a military parade to commemorate Kim Il-sung's centenary, Kim Jong-un made his first public speech.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-81">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-81 [81]]</sup> That speech became the basis of "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onwards_Toward_the_Final_Victory Onwards Toward the Final Victory]", a repeatedly aired propaganda hymn dedicated to him.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-The_Guardian_.28Branigan.29_6_July_2012_82-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-The_Guardian_.28Branigan.29_6_July_2012-82 [82]]</sup>
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In July 2012, Kim Jong-un was promoted to [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wonsu#North_Korea wonsu], the highest active rank in the military. The decision was jointly issued on by the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Committee_of_the_Workers%27_Party_of_Korea Central Committee] and the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Military_Commission_%28North_Korea%29 Central Military Commission] of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workers%27_Party_of_Korea Workers' Party of Korea], the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Defence_Commission_of_North_Korea National Defence Commission], and the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidium Presidium] of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_People%27s_Assembly Supreme People's Assembly], the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_Central_News_Agency Korean Central News Agency] subsequently announced. By this promotion, he is one of only two wonsu holders now alive in North Korea. The other is Lee Ul Sol, who received the rank in 1995. The only higher rank is [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dae_Wonsu Dae Wonsu] (roughly translated as [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Marshal Grand Marshal] or [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalissimo Generalissimo]) which was held by Kim's grandfather, Kim Il-sung, and which was awarded posthumously to his father, Kim Jong-il, in February 2012.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-marshall_10-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-marshall-10 [10]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-83">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-83 [83]]</sup> The promotion confirmed Kim's role as top leader of the North Korean military and came days after the replacement of Chief of General Staff [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ri_Yong-ho Ri Yong-ho] by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyon_Yong-chol Hyon Yong-chol].
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During a 26 July 2012 performance marking the 59th anniversary of the armistice of the Korean War, security around Kim reportedly increased dramatically because Kim "is extremely nervous about the possibility of an emergency developing inside North Korea" caused by "mounting opposition to his efforts to rein in the military."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Choe_Dec_6_84-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Choe_Dec_6-84 [84]]</sup>
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In August 2012, Kim Jong-un announced economics reforms similar to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China People's Republic of China].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-85">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-85 [85]]</sup> Kim began to be mentioned by the North Korean state media as "Supreme Leader" (''chego ryongdoja'') at this time.
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In November 2012, satellite photos revealed a half-kilometer-long propaganda message carved into a hillside in Ryanggang Province, reading, "Long Live General Kim Jong-un, the Shining Sun!" The message, located next to an artificial lake built in 2007 to serve a hydroelectric station, is made of Korean syllable blocks measuring 15 by 20 meters, and is located approximately 9 kilometers south of Hyesan near the border with the People's Republic of China.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-86">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-86 [86]]</sup>
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Kim Jong-il's personal chef [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenji_Fujimoto Kenji Fujimoto] stated, "Stores in Pyongyang were brimming with products and people in the streets looked cheerful. North Korea has changed a lot since Kim Jong-un assumed power. All of this is because of leader Kim Jong-un."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-87">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-87 [87]]</sup>
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Unha-9_rocket_model.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Unha-9_rocket_model.jpg]Model of a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unha Unha]-9 rocket on display at a floral exhibition in Pyongyang, 30 August 2013Officially, Kim Jong-un is part of a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triumvirate triumvirate] heading the executive branch of the North Korean government along with Premier [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pak_Pong-ju Pak Pong-ju] and parliament chairman [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Yong-nam Kim Yong-nam] (no relation). Each nominally holds powers equivalent to a third of a president's powers in most other presidential systems. Kim Jong-un commands the armed forces, Pak Pong-ju heads the government, and Kim Yong-nam handles foreign relations. Nevertheless, it is generally understood that Kim Jong-un, like his father and grandfather before him, exercises absolute control over the government and the country.
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On 30 November 2012, Kim met with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Jianguo Li Jianguo], who "briefed Kim on the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/18th_National_Congress_of_the_Communist_Party_of_China 18th National Congress] of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_Party_of_China Communist Party of China]," according to the KCNA news agency.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-letter_Dec_3_88-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-letter_Dec_3-88 [88]]</sup> A letter from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xi_Jinping Xi Jinping] was hand-delivered during the discussion.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-letter_Dec_3_88-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-letter_Dec_3-88 [88]]</sup>
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In 2013, Kim re-established his grandfather's style when he made his first New Year's address, a break from the approach of his father. Kim Jong-il never made televised addresses during his 17 years in power.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-89">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-89 [89]]</sup> In lieu of delivering a speech, Kim Jong-il contributed to and approved a New Year's Day editorial, jointly published by ''Rodong Sinmun'' (the daily newspaper of the Korean Workers' Party), ''Joson Imnigun'' (the newspaper of the Korean People's Army), and ''Chongnyon Jonwi'' (the newspaper of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Il-sung_Socialist_Youth_League Kim Il-sung Socialist Youth League]).<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-90">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-90 [90]]</sup> At the extraordinary meeting with his top defence and security officials on 26 January 2013, Kim issued orders on preparations for a new nuclear test and introduced [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martial_law martial law] in North Korea effective from 29 January.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-91">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-91 [91]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-92">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-92 [92]]</sup>
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===Nuclear threats===
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On 7 March 2013, North Korea threatened the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States United States] with a 'pre-emptive nuclear attack',<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-93">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-93 [93]]</sup> and Kim Jong-un issued a detailed threat to "wipe out" [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baengnyeong_Island Baengnyeong Island], the scene of previous naval clashes.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-94">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-94 [94]]</sup> North Korea has revealed its plans for conducting nuclear strikes on U.S. cities, including [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles Los Angeles], and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington,_D.C. Washington, D.C.]<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-95">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-95 [95]]</sup>
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At a plenary meeting of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Committee_of_the_Workers%27_Party_of_Korea WPK Central Committee] held on 31 March 2013 in the wake of war threats with South Korea, Kim Jong-un announced that North Korea will adopt "a new strategic line on carrying out economic construction and building nuclear armed forces simultaneously".<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-96">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-96 [96]]</sup>
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===Purges===
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ri_Yong-ho Ri Yong-ho], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Yong-chun Kim Yong-chun], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U_Tong-chuk U Tong-chuk], and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-gak Kim Jong-gak] were handpicked to groom the young leader and were close confidants of Kim Jong-il. They have either been demoted or disappeared. One South Korean government official said Kim Jong-un is trying to "erase all traces of his father's rule" 11 months after stepping into power and "replacing top brass with officers who are loyal to him alone."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-4_shake_up_97-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-4_shake_up-97 [97]]</sup> By the end of 2013, three defence ministers and four chiefs of the army's general staff had been replaced and five of the seven men who had escorted his father's [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hearse hearse] two years earlier had been [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purge purged],<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-98">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-98 [98]]</sup> with his uncle [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jang_Sung-taek Jang Sung-taek] one of the most prominent.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-99">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-99 [99]]</sup> Jang Song Thaek is believed to have been executed by machine gun. It has been claimed that Kim Jong-un has also put to death members of Jang's family. According to multiple sources, Kim is attempting to completely destroy all traces of Jang's existence through "extensive executions" of his family, including the children and grandchildren of all close relatives. Those reportedly killed in Kim's purge include Jang's sister Jang Kye-sun, her husband and ambassador to Cuba, Jon Yong-jin, and Jang's nephew and ambassador to Malaysia, Jang Yong-chol. The nephew's two sons were also said to have been killed.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-100">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-100 [100]]</sup> At the time of Jang's removal it was announced that "the discovery and purge of the Jang group... made our party and revolutionary ranks purer..."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-101">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-101 [101]]</sup> and after his execution on 12 December 2013 state media warned that the army "will never pardon all those who disobey the order of the Supreme Commander."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-102">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-102 [102]]</sup>
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On 29 August 2013, ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Chosun_Ilbo The Chosun Ilbo]'' reported that key members of the Moranbong Band were made to watch the execution by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firing_squad firing squad] of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyon_Song-wol Hyon Song-wol] and members of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unhasu_Orchestra Unhasu Orchestra] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wangjaesan_Light_Music_Band Wangjaesan Light Music Band], on the orders of Kim Jong-un.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-103">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-103 [103]]</sup> Kim had organized the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moranbong_Band Moranbong Band] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_language Korean]:모란봉악단), an all-female music group, on 7 July 2012.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-104">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-104 [104]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Kim_band_105-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Kim_band-105 [105]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Daily_News_2013_106-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Daily_News_2013-106 [106]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Kim_Jong_Un_organized_the_Moranbong_band_as_required_by_the_new_century_107-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Kim_Jong_Un_organized_the_Moranbong_band_as_required_by_the_new_century-107 [107]]</sup> Official state media denied that Hyon Song-wol had been executed, however.
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==Personality==
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenji_Fujimoto Kenji Fujimoto], a Japanese chef who used to work as Kim Jong-il's personal cook, described Kim Jong-un as "a chip off the old block, a spitting image of his father in terms of face, body shape, and personality".<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-108">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-108 [108]]</sup>
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''The Washington Post'' reported in 2009 that Kim Jong-un's school friends recalled he "spent hours doing meticulous pencil drawings of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Bulls Chicago Bulls] superstar [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Jordan Michael Jordan]."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-109">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-109 [109]]</sup> He was obsessed with basketball and computer games.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-110">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-110 [110]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-111">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-111 [111]]</sup> On 26 February 2013, Kim Jong-un met ex-NBA star [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Rodman Dennis Rodman],<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-112">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-112 [112]]</sup> leading many reporters to speculate that Rodman was the first American that Kim had met.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-113">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-113 [113]]</sup> Rodman described his trip to Kim Jong-un's [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_island private island], "It's like Hawaii or Ibiza, but he's the only one that lives there."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-114">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-114 [114]]</sup> Kim Jong-un is reportedly a fan of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Clapton Eric Clapton].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-115">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-115 [115]]</sup>
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In a 2012 news story, ''Business Insider'' reported, "Signs of a rise in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luxury_goods luxury goods] have been creeping out of North Korea since Kim Jong-un took over as last year. Just recently, Kim's wife Ri Sol-Ju was photographed holding what appeared to be an expensive [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Dior_S.A. Dior] handbag, worth almost $1,594 – an average year's salary in North Korea."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-116">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-116 [116]]</sup> According to diplomatic sources, "Kim Jong-un likes to drink and party all night like his father and ordered the [imported sauna] equipment to help him beat hangovers and fatigue."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-117">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-117 [117]]</sup>
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During [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Rodman Dennis Rodman]'s 26 February 2013 trip to North Korea, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vice_Media Vice Media] correspondent Ryan Duffy observed that "the leader was “socially awkward” and didn’t make eye contact when shaking hands".<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Vice_2013_118-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Vice_2013-118 [118]]</sup>
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In 2013, it was rumored that Kim Jong-un had received [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_surgery plastic surgery] in order to modify his facial appearance.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-119">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-119 [119]]</sup>
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==Assassination attempt==
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On 14 March 2013, reports surfaced from South Korean intelligence sources that Kim Jong-un had been the target of an assassination attempt.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-120">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-120 [120]]</sup> The attempt was made by "disgruntled people inside the North" in response to the demotion of Reconnaissance General Bureau director [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kim_Yong-chol&action=edit&redlink=1 Kim Yong-chol] in November 2012. According to the unnamed intelligence source, the attempt was made in downtown Pyongyang and resulted in a firefight. The demotion was due to an internal power struggle between government factions.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-121">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-121 [121]]</sup>
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There had also been a rumor about an assassination attempt in 2012, while Kim Jong-un was visiting [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China China].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Luis_Martinezi_122-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Luis_Martinezi-122 [122]]</sup> United States officials claimed the rumors had no validity.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Luis_Martinezi_122-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Luis_Martinezi-122 [122]]</sup>
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==Human rights violations==
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See also: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_in_North_Korea Human rights in North Korea]Many reports indicate that the human rights violations under the leadership of Kim Jong-il<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-123">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-123 [123]]</sup> are continuing under Kim Jong-un.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-124">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-124 [124]]</sup> Such violations include ordering the killing of defectors,<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-125">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-125 [125]]</sup> conducting public executions<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-126">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-126 [126]]</sup> and sending people to [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights_in_North_Korea#The_prison_system political prison camps].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-127">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-127 [127]]</sup> It is assumed that Kim Jong-un was involved in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ROKS_Cheonan_sinking ''Cheonan'' sinking]<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-128">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-128 [128]]</sup> and the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombardment_of_Yeonpyeong bombardment of Yeonpyeong]<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-129">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-129 [129]]</sup> to strengthen his military credentials and facilitate a successful transition of power from his father.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-130">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-130 [130]]</sup>
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  +
The 2013 report on the situation of human rights in North Korea<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-131">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-131 [131]]</sup> by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Special_Rapporteur United Nations Special Rapporteur] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marzuki_Darusman Marzuki Darusman] proposed a United Nations commission of inquiry<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-132">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-132 [132]]</sup> to document the accountability of Kim Jong-un and other individuals in the North Korean government for alleged [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crimes_against_humanity crimes against humanity].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-133">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-133 [133]]</sup> The report of the commission of inquiry<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-134">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-134 [134]]</sup> was published in February 2014 and recommends to make him accountable for crimes against humanity at the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Criminal_Court International Criminal Court].<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-135">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-135 [135]]</sup>
  +
  +
One report by the Japanese ''Asia Press'' agency in January 2013 claimed that in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Hwanghae North] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Hwanghae_Province South Hwanghae] provinces more than 10,000 people had died of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Famine famine]. Other international news agencies have begun circulating stories of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannibalism cannibalism]. One informant, based in South Hwanghae, said: "In my village in May, a man who killed his own two children and tried to eat them was executed by a firing squad."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-136">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-136 [136]]</sup>
  +
==Name==
  +
Kim was formerly known as '''Kim Jong-woon''' or '''Kim Jung-woon'''.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-gs_47-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-gs-47 [47]]</sup> His name was first reported as 김정운 (Hanja: [http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E9%87%91 金][http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E6%AD%A3 正][http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E9%9B%B2 雲]; lit. ''righteous cloud''), possibly as a result of an error in transliteration; the Japanese language does not distinguish between 운 ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_Korean /un/]) and 은 ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_Korean /ɯn/]).<sup class="Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed citation needed]'']</sup> The initial source of his name was Kim Jong-il's former personal chef, known by the pen name [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenji_Fujimoto Kenji Fujimoto], who was among the few who had access to information about Kim's household from inside the government. Chinese media had named him as 김정은 (Hanja: [http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E9%87%91 金][http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E6%AD%A3 正][http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E6%81%A9 恩]; lit. ''righteous grace'').<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-hanja_3-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-hanja-3 [3]]</sup>
  +
==Family==
  +
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arirang_Mass_Games_32.JPG][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Arirang_Mass_Games_32.JPG]Portraits of Kim Jong Un's father and grandfather ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arirang_Festival Arirang Festival] mass games in Pyongyang)On 25 July 2012 North Korean state media reported for the first time that Kim Jong-un is married to [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ri_Sol-ju Ri Sol-ju] (리설주).<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-marry_137-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-marry-137 [137]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-fox_138-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-fox-138 [138]]</sup> Ri, who appears to be in her early 20s, had been accompanying Kim Jong-un to public appearances for several weeks prior to the announcement.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-fox_138-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-fox-138 [138]]</sup> The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BBC BBC], quoting an analyst who spoke to ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Korea_Times The Korea Times]'' of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Korea South Korea], reported that Kim Jong-il had hastily arranged his son's marriage after suffering a stroke in 2008. According to some sources, the two married in 2009 and Ri gave birth to a daughter in 2010.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-139">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-139 [139]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-140">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-140 [140]]</sup>
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  +
Kim Jong-un has two half-brothers and an older and younger full-brother (see below). He also has a younger sister, Kim Yo-jong, who was believed to be about 23 in 2012. She sometimes accompanies him.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Kim_Yo_Jong_141-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Kim_Yo_Jong-141 [141]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-KJD8812_142-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-KJD8812-142 [142]]</sup>
  +
===Fatherhood===
  +
In October 2012, there was speculation about Ri's public disappearance, and questions arose whether it was the result of a "breach of discipline" or "pregnancy,"<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Telegraph_report_of_Oct_2012_143-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Telegraph_report_of_Oct_2012-143 [143]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-breach_of_discipline_.28by_Ri.29.2C_plus_the_speculation_of_pregnancy_144-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-breach_of_discipline_.28by_Ri.29.2C_plus_the_speculation_of_pregnancy-144 [144]]</sup> but she later reappeared with her spouse Kim at a military college.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Telegraph_report_of_Oct_2012_143-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Telegraph_report_of_Oct_2012-143 [143]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-breach_of_discipline_.28by_Ri.29.2C_plus_the_speculation_of_pregnancy_144-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-breach_of_discipline_.28by_Ri.29.2C_plus_the_speculation_of_pregnancy-144 [144]]</sup> It was followed by news reports in December 2012 that Ri was visibly pregnant, although North Korean officials did not comment on the speculation.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Time_Dec_17_145-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Time_Dec_17-145 [145]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-Huff_UK_Oct_2012_146-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-Huff_UK_Oct_2012-146 [146]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-SCMP_Dec_17_147-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-SCMP_Dec_17-147 [147]]</sup>
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  +
In March 2013, former NBA basketball player [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Rodman Dennis Rodman] visited Kim Jong-un in North Korea and on his return told the British tabloid newspaper [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Sun_%28United_Kingdom%29 ''The Sun''] that Ri had given birth to a healthy daughter.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-chosunmarch20_148-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-chosunmarch20-148 [148]]</sup> One South Korean government source speculated that "doctors induced labor to make sure the child was born in 2012, which marked the 100th anniversary of North Korean founder Kim Il-sung," but no exact birth date has been confirmed.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-chosunmarch20_148-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-chosunmarch20-148 [148]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-149">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-149 [149]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-150">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-150 [150]]</sup> Rodman told ''The Guardian'' in September 2013 that the couple's baby, a girl, is named Ju-ae.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-theguardian_151-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-theguardian-151 [151]]</sup>
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{| align="center" style="clear:both; margin:0em;"
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! style="font-size:95%; padding: 0 5px 0 5px;"|'''Select<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-152">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-152 [α]]</sup> family tree of North Korea's ruling<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-153">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-153 [β]]</sup> Kim family'''<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-154">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-154 [γ]]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-155">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-155 [δ]]</sup>*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Kim_dynasty_%28North_Korea%29_family_tree <span style="" title="View this template">view</span>]*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template_talk:Kim_dynasty_%28North_Korea%29_family_tree <span style="" title="Discuss this template">talk</span>]
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Kim_dynasty_%28North_Korea%29_family_tree&action=edit <span style="" title="Edit this template">edit</span>]
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| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: lightblue;"|Kim Bo-hyon
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1859–1955
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| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: lightblue;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Hyong-jik Kim Hyong-jik]
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1884–1926
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| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: pink;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kang_Pan-sok Kang Pan-sok]
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1892–1932
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| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: pink;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-suk Kim Jong-suk]
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1919<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-uncertainty_156-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-uncertainty-156 [ε]]</sup>–1949
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| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: lightblue;"|'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Il-sung Kim Il-sung]'''
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1912–1994
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| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: pink;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Sung-ae Kim Sung-ae]
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1928–?
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| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: lightblue;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Yong-ju Kim Yong-ju]
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1920–
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| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: pink;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Young-sook Kim Young-sook]
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| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: pink;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Song_Hye-rim Song Hye-rim]
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| colspan="2" style="border-bottom: 1px dashed black;"|
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| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: lightblue;"|'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-il Kim Jong-il]'''
  +
1941<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-uncertainty_156-1">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-uncertainty-156 [ε]]</sup>–2011
  +
| colspan="2" style="border-bottom: 1px dashed black;"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: pink;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ko_Yong-hui Ko Yong-hui]
  +
1953–2004
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: pink;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Ok Kim Ok]
  +
1964–
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: pink;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Kyong-hui Kim Kyong-hui]
  +
1946–
  +
| colspan="2" style="border-bottom: 1px dashed black;"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: lightblue;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jang_Sung-taek Jang Sung-taek]
  +
1946–2013
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: lightblue;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Pyong-il Kim Pyong-il]
  +
1954–
  +
|- style="height: 1px; text-align: center;"
  +
| style="border-right: 1px solid black;"|
  +
|
  +
| style="border-right: 1px solid black;"|
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  +
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  +
|- style="height: 1px; text-align: center;"
  +
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  +
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  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
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  +
| rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| rowspan="2" style="border-right: 1px solid black;"|
  +
| rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
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  +
| style="border-bottom: 1px solid black;"|
  +
| colspan="2" style="border-bottom: 1px solid black;"|
  +
| colspan="2" style="border-bottom: 1px solid black;"|
  +
| colspan="2" style="border-bottom: 1px solid black;"|
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| style="border-bottom: 1px solid black;"|
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  +
|- style="height: 1px; text-align: center;"
  +
|
  +
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  +
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| colspan="2"|
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| style="border-right: 1px solid black;"|
  +
|
  +
| colspan="2"|
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| colspan="2"|
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| colspan="2"|
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| colspan="2"|
  +
| style="border-right: 1px solid black;"|
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|- style="height: 1px; text-align: center;"
  +
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  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: pink;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Sul-song Kim Sul-song]
  +
1974–
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: lightblue;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-nam Kim Jong-nam]
  +
1971–
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: lightblue;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-chul Kim Jong-chul]
  +
1981–
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: lightblue;"|'''Kim Jong-un'''
  +
1983<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-uncertainty_156-2">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-uncertainty-156 [ε]]</sup>–
  +
| colspan="2" style="border-bottom: 1px dashed black;"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: pink;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ri_Sol-ju Ri Sol-ju]
  +
c.<span style="white-space:nowrap;"> 1986</span>–
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: pink;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Yo-jong Kim Yo-jong]
  +
1987–
  +
|- style="height: 1px; text-align: center;"
  +
| style="border-right: 1px solid black;"|
  +
|
  +
|- style="height: 1px; text-align: center;"
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| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
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|- style="height: 1px; text-align: center;"
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|
  +
|- style="height: 1px; text-align: center;"
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| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
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  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: lightblue;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Han-sol Kim Han-sol]
  +
1995–
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
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| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="2" rowspan="2"|
  +
| colspan="6" rowspan="2" style="border:2px solid black;padding:0.2em;background-color: pink;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Ju-ae Kim Ju-ae]
  +
c.<span style="white-space:nowrap;"> 2012</span><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-uncertainty_156-3">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Jong-un#cite_note-uncertainty-156 [ε]]</sup>–
  +
|- style="height: 1px; text-align: center;"
  +
|
  +
|}
  +
|}
  +
#To keep the tree of manageable size, it omits some members, e. g., brothers and sisters of Kim Jong-il.
  +
#Names of Supreme Leaders of the DPRK are in bold font.
  +
#Korean names often have a variety of transliterations into English, which can be confusing. For example, "Kim Jong-chul" may also be written "Gim Jeong-cheol" or "Kim Jŏng-ch'ŏl" among many other variations. See [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_romanization Korean romanization] for more information.
  +
#Huss, Kan; Frost, Clay. [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39382760/ns/world_news-asia_pacific/t/north-koreas-first-family/#.TyL9qPlciZV "North Korea’s First Family: Mapping the personal and political drama of the Kim clan"]. msnbc.com. Retrieved 20 January 2013. (Confirms many, but not all, of the birth and death years. See individual articles for more references.)
  +
#Official biographies of Kim Jong-suk and Kim Jong-il give birth years of 1917 and 1942, respectively, while Kim Jong-un's birth year may actually be 1984. Kim Ju-ae may have been born in late 2012 or early 2013.
  +
==See also==
  +
{| style="background:#f9f9f9;font-size:85%;line-height:110%;max-width:175px;"
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|- valign="middle"
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| style="text-align:center;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_North_Korea.svg]
  +
| style="padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:middle;font-style:italic;font-weight:bold;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:North_Korea North Korea portal]
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|- valign="middle"
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| style="text-align:center;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:P_vip.svg]
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| style="padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:middle;font-style:italic;font-weight:bold;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Biography Biography portal]
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|- valign="middle"
  +
| style="text-align:center;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:A_coloured_voting_box.svg]
  +
| style="padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:middle;font-style:italic;font-weight:bold;"|[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Politics Politics portal]
  +
|}
  +
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_dynasty_%28North_Korea%29 Kim dynasty (North Korea)]
  +
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Korean_leader%27s_residences North Korean leader's residences]
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Korea%27s_cult_of_personality North Korea's cult of personality]
 
[[Category:Forum Members]]
 
[[Category:Forum Members]]
 
[[Category:Staff]]
 
[[Category:Staff]]

Revision as of 15:25, 30 March 2014

Maurice's usual avatar

Kim Jong-un[4] (Korean pronunciation: [kim d͡zɔŋʊn]; born 8 January 1983;[2] also romanised as Kim Jong-eun, Kim Jong Un or Kim Jung-eun[5]) is the supreme leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, commonly known as North Korea. He is the son of Kim Jong-il (1941–2011) and the grandson of Kim Il-sung (1912–1994). He has held the titles of the First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea, the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, First Chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army, and presidium member of the Politburo of the Workers' Party of Korea. He was officially declared the supreme leader following the state funeral for his father on 28 December 2011.[6] He is the third and youngest son of Kim Jong-il and his consort Ko Young-hee.[7]

From late 2010, Kim Jong-un was viewed as heir apparent to the leadership of the nation, and following his father's death, he was announced as the "Great Successor" by North Korean state television.[8] At Kim Jong-il's memorial service, North Korean Chairman of the Supreme People's Assembly Kim Yong-nam declared that "Respected Comrade Kim Jong-un is our party, military and country's supreme leader who inherits great comrade Kim Jong-il's ideology, leadership, character, virtues, grit and courage".[9] On 30 December 2011, the Politburo of the Workers' Party of Korea formally appointed Kim as the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army.[1] On 11 April 2012, the 4th Party Conference elected him to the newly created post of First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea.

He was promoted to the rank of marshal of the DPRK in the Korean People's Army on 18 July 2012, consolidating his position as the supreme commander of the armed forces.[10] He obtained two degrees, one in physics at Kim Il-sung University and another as an Army officer at the Kim Il-sung Military University.[11][12] On 9 March 2014 Kim Jong-un was elected to the Supreme People's Assembly. He was unopposed but voters had the choice of voting yes or no. There was a record turn-out of voters and according to government officials all voted yes. The election was significant as it was the first time Kim Jong-un had faced an election since inheriting power following the death of his father in 2011.[13] At 31 years of age, he is the world's youngest head of state.


Early life and education

No official comprehensive biography on Kim Jong-un has yet been released. Therefore, the only known information on his early life comes from defectors and people who have claimed to witness him abroad, such as in Switzerland. Some of the information has been conflicting and contradictory since his brother Kim Jong-chul was attending school in Switzerland around the same period. Nevertheless, there has been some consensus on information about his early life. North Korean authorities have stated that his birthdate is 8 January 1982, but South Korean intelligence officials believe the actual date is a year later. Dennis Rodman said that the birthdate is 8 January 1983 after meeting the young leader in early September 2013.[2]

According to reports first published in Japanese newspapers, he went to school in Switzerland near Bern. First reports claimed he attended the private English-language International School in Gümligen near Bern under the name "Chol-pak" or "Pak-chol" from 1993 until 1998.[14][15][16] He was described as shy, a good student who got along well with his classmates and was a basketball fan.[17] He was chaperoned by an older student, who was thought to be his bodyguard.[18]

Later, it was reported that Kim Jong-un attended the Liebefeld Steinhölzli school in Köniz near Bern under the name "Pak-un" or "Un-pak" from 1998 until 2000 as the son of an employee of the Embassy of North Korea. Authorities of Köniz confirmed that a student from North Korea, registered as the son of a member of the Embassy, attended the school from August 1998 till fall 2000, but were unable to give details about his identity. Pak-un first attended a special class for foreign-language children and later attended the regular classes of the 6th, 7th, 8th, and part of the final 9th year, leaving the school abruptly in fall 2000. He was described as a well-integrated and ambitious student who liked to play basketball.[19] However, his grades and attendance rating are reported to have been poor.[20][21] The ambassador of North Korea in Switzerland, Ri Tcheul, had a close relationship with him and acted as a mentor.[22] One of Pak-un's classmates told reporters that he had told him that he was the son of the leader of North Korea.[23][24] According to some reports, Jong-un was described by classmates as a shy child who was awkward with girls and indifferent to political issues but who distinguished himself in sports, and had a fascination with the American National Basketball Association and Michael Jordan. One friend claimed that he had been shown pictures of Pak-un with Kobe Bryant and Toni Kukoč taken at an unknown location.[25]

In April 2012, new documents came to light indicating that Kim Jong-un had lived in Switzerland since 1991 or 1992, earlier than previously thought.[26]

The Laboratory of Anatomic Anthropology at the University of Lyon, France, after comparing the picture of the boy Pak-un taken at the Liebefeld Steinhölzli school in 1999 with a picture of Kim Jong-un from 2012 came to the conclusion that the two faces show a conformity of 95%. The head of the institute, Raoul Perrot, a forensic anthropologist, considers it most likely that the two pictures show the same person.[27][28]

It is believed that the student at the Gümligen International School was not Kim Jong-un but his elder brother Kim Jong-chol. It is not known whether the student known as Pak-un in Liebefeld Steinhölzli lived in Switzerland prior to 1998.[29] All the children of Kim Jong-il are said to have lived in Switzerland, as well as the mother of the two youngest sons, who lived in Geneva for some time. The Kim clan is also said to organise family meetings in Switzerland at Lake Geneva and Interlaken.[22]

Most analysts agree that Kim Jong-un attended Kim Il-sung University, a leading officer-training school in Pyongyang, from 2002 to 2007.[30]

For many years, only one confirmed photograph of him was known outside North Korea, apparently taken in the mid-1990s, when he was eleven.[31] Occasional other supposed images of him surfaced but were often disputed.[32][33][34][35] It was only in June 2010, shortly before he was given official posts and publicly introduced to the North Korean people, that more pictures were released of Kim, taken when he was attending school in Switzerland.[36][37] The first official image of him as an adult was a group photograph released on 30 September 2010, at the end of the party conference that effectively anointed him, in which he is seated in the front row, two places from his father. This was followed by newsreel footage of him attending the conference.[38]

Succession

Pre-2010 Party Conference speculation

His eldest half-brother, Kim Jong-nam, had been the favourite to succeed, but reportedly fell out of favour after 2001, when he was caught attempting to enter Japan on a fake passport to visit Tokyo Disneyland.[39]

Kim Jong-il's former personal chef, Kenji Fujimoto, revealed details regarding Kim Jong-un, with whom he had a good relationship,[40] stating that he was favoured to be his father's successor. Fujimoto also claimed that Jong-un was favored by his father over his elder brother, Kim Jong-chul, reasoning that Jong-chul is too feminine in character, while Jong-un is "exactly like his father".[41] Furthermore, Fujimoto stated that "If power is to be handed over then Jong-un is the best for it. He has superb physical gifts, is a big drinker and never admits defeat." Also, according to Fujimoto, Jong-un smokes Yves Saint Laurent cigarettes, loves Johnnie Walker whisky and has a Mercedes-Benz 600 Sedan.[42] When Jong-un was 18, Fujimoto described an episode where Jong-un questioned his lavish lifestyle and asked, "We are here, playing basketball, riding horses, riding Jet Skis, having fun together. But what of the lives of the average people?"[41] On 15 January 2009 the South Korean news agency, Yonhap, reported that Kim Jong-il had appointed Kim Jong-un to be his successor.[39][43]

On 8 March 2009, the BBC reported rumors that Kim Jong-un was on the ballot for elections to the Supreme People's Assembly, the rubber stamp parliament of North Korea.[44] Subsequent reports indicate that his name did not appear on the list of lawmakers,[45] but he was later elevated to a mid-level position in the National Defense Commission, which is a branch of the North Korean military.[46] Reports have also suggested that he is a diabetic and suffers from hypertension.[47][48] [1][2]North Koreans bowing to the statues of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-ilFrom 2009, it was understood by foreign diplomatic services that Kim was to succeed his father Kim Jong-il as the head of the Korean Workers' Party and de facto leader of North Korea.[49] He has been named "Yŏngmyŏng-han Tongji" (영명한 동지), which loosely translates to "Brilliant Comrade".[50] His father had also asked embassy staff abroad to pledge loyalty to his son.[48] There have also been reports that citizens in North Korea were encouraged to sing a newly composed "song of praise" to Kim Jong-un, in a similar fashion to that of praise songs relating to Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung.[51] Later, in June, Kim was reported to have visited China secretly to "present himself" to the Chinese leadership, who later warned against North Korea conducting another nuclear test.[52] The Chinese Foreign Ministry has strongly denied that this visit occurred.[53][54]

North Korea was later reported to have backed the succession plan, after Kim Jong-il suspended a propaganda campaign to promote his youngest son.[55] His birthday has since become a national holiday, celebrated on 8 January, according to a report by a South Korean website.[56] He was expected to be named on 28 September 2010 as successor to his father as leader of North Korea.[57][58][59]

Former U.S. president Jimmy Carter visited China in early September 2010, and discussed the issue of the North Korean leadership succession with Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao. According to Carter, Kim Jong-il had said to Wen that Kim Jong-un's prospective promotion to paramount leader of North Korea was "a false rumor from the West".[60]

Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission

Kim Jong-un was made a daejang, the equivalent of general in the United States,[61] on 27 September 2010, a day ahead of a rare Workers' Party of Korea conference in Pyongyang, the first time North Korean media had mentioned him by name and despite his having no previous military experience.[62][63][64] Despite the promotion, no further details, including verifiable portraits of Kim, were released.[65] On 28 September 2010, he was named vice chairman of the Central Military Commission and appointed to the Central Committee of the Workers' Party, in an apparent nod to become the successor to Kim Jong-il.[66]

On 10 October 2010, alongside his father, Kim Jong-un attended the ruling Workers' Party's 65th anniversary celebration. This was seen as fully confirming his position as the next leader of the Workers' Party. Unprecedented international press access was granted to the event, further indicating the importance of Kim Jong-un's presence.[67] In January 2011, the regime began purging around 200 protégés of both Jong-un's uncle-in-law Jang Sung-taek and O Kuk-ryol, the vice chairman of the National Defence Commission of North Korea, by either detention or execution to further prevent either man from rivaling Jong-un.[68] In the following months, Kim Jong-un was given more and more prominence as he accompanied Kim Jong-il during several "guidance tours" and received gifts from foreign delegations and personages, an honour traditionally awarded only to the living supreme leader. He was also listed second only to Kim Jong-il himself in the funeral committee for Jo Myong-rok.[citation needed]

Ruler of North Korea

On 17 December 2011, Kim Jong-il died. Despite the elder Kim's plans, it was not immediately clear after his death whether Jong-un would in fact take full power, and what his exact role in a new government would be.[69] Some analysts had predicted that when Kim Jong-il died, Jang Sung-taek would act as regent, as Jong-un was too inexperienced to immediately lead the country.[70] On 25 December 2011, North Korean television showed Jang Sung-taek in the uniform of a general in a sign of his growing sway after the death of Kim Jong-il. A Seoul official familiar with North Korea affairs said it was the first time Jang has been shown on state television in a military uniform. His appearance suggested that Jang had secured a key role in the North's powerful military, which pledged its allegiance to Kim Jong-un.[71]

The cult of personality around Kim Jong-un was stepped up following his father's death. He was hailed as the "great successor to the revolutionary cause of Juche", "outstanding leader of the party, army and people"[72] and "respected comrade who is identical to Supreme Commander Kim Jong-il",[73] and was made chairman of the Kim Jong-il funeral committee. The Korean Central News Agency described Kim Jong-un as "a great person born of heaven", a propaganda term only his father and grandfather had enjoyed,[74] while the ruling Workers' Party said in an editorial: "We vow with bleeding tears to call Kim Jong-un our supreme commander, our leader."[75]

He was publicly declared Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army on 24 December 2011[76] and formally appointed to the position on 30 December when the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party "courteously proclaimed that the dear respected Kim Jong Un, vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission of the WPK, assumed the supreme commandership of the Korean People's Army".[1] [3][4]Revolutionary Martyrs' Cemetery in Pyongyang, 2012On 26 December 2011, the leading North Korean newspaper Rodong Sinmun announced that Kim Jong-un had been acting as chairman of the Central Military Commission,[77] and supreme leader of the country, following his father's demise.[78]

On 9 January 2012, a large rally was held by armed forces in front of Kumsusan Memorial Palace to honor Kim Jong-un and demonstrate loyalty.[79]

On 27 March 2012, Kim was elected to the Fourth Conference of the Workers' Party of Korea, that elected him first secretary, a newly made position, on 11 April. This position replaced the post of general secretary, which was awarded "eternally" to Kim Jong-il. At the conference, Kim Jong-un also took his father's seats as Politburo Presidium member and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.[80] In a speech made prior to the Conference, Kim Jong-un declared that "Imbuing the whole society with Kimilsungism-Kimjongilism is the highest programme of our Party". On 13 April 2012, the 5th Session of the 12th Supreme People's Assembly appointed Kim Jong-un First Chairman of the National Defence Commission.

On 15 April 2012, during a military parade to commemorate Kim Il-sung's centenary, Kim Jong-un made his first public speech.[81] That speech became the basis of "Onwards Toward the Final Victory", a repeatedly aired propaganda hymn dedicated to him.[82]

In July 2012, Kim Jong-un was promoted to wonsu, the highest active rank in the military. The decision was jointly issued on by the Central Committee and the Central Military Commission of the Workers' Party of Korea, the National Defence Commission, and the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly, the Korean Central News Agency subsequently announced. By this promotion, he is one of only two wonsu holders now alive in North Korea. The other is Lee Ul Sol, who received the rank in 1995. The only higher rank is Dae Wonsu (roughly translated as Grand Marshal or Generalissimo) which was held by Kim's grandfather, Kim Il-sung, and which was awarded posthumously to his father, Kim Jong-il, in February 2012.[10][83] The promotion confirmed Kim's role as top leader of the North Korean military and came days after the replacement of Chief of General Staff Ri Yong-ho by Hyon Yong-chol.

During a 26 July 2012 performance marking the 59th anniversary of the armistice of the Korean War, security around Kim reportedly increased dramatically because Kim "is extremely nervous about the possibility of an emergency developing inside North Korea" caused by "mounting opposition to his efforts to rein in the military."[84]

In August 2012, Kim Jong-un announced economics reforms similar to the People's Republic of China.[85] Kim began to be mentioned by the North Korean state media as "Supreme Leader" (chego ryongdoja) at this time.

In November 2012, satellite photos revealed a half-kilometer-long propaganda message carved into a hillside in Ryanggang Province, reading, "Long Live General Kim Jong-un, the Shining Sun!" The message, located next to an artificial lake built in 2007 to serve a hydroelectric station, is made of Korean syllable blocks measuring 15 by 20 meters, and is located approximately 9 kilometers south of Hyesan near the border with the People's Republic of China.[86]

Kim Jong-il's personal chef Kenji Fujimoto stated, "Stores in Pyongyang were brimming with products and people in the streets looked cheerful. North Korea has changed a lot since Kim Jong-un assumed power. All of this is because of leader Kim Jong-un."[87] [5][6]Model of a Unha-9 rocket on display at a floral exhibition in Pyongyang, 30 August 2013Officially, Kim Jong-un is part of a triumvirate heading the executive branch of the North Korean government along with Premier Pak Pong-ju and parliament chairman Kim Yong-nam (no relation). Each nominally holds powers equivalent to a third of a president's powers in most other presidential systems. Kim Jong-un commands the armed forces, Pak Pong-ju heads the government, and Kim Yong-nam handles foreign relations. Nevertheless, it is generally understood that Kim Jong-un, like his father and grandfather before him, exercises absolute control over the government and the country.

On 30 November 2012, Kim met with Li Jianguo, who "briefed Kim on the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China," according to the KCNA news agency.[88] A letter from Xi Jinping was hand-delivered during the discussion.[88]

In 2013, Kim re-established his grandfather's style when he made his first New Year's address, a break from the approach of his father. Kim Jong-il never made televised addresses during his 17 years in power.[89] In lieu of delivering a speech, Kim Jong-il contributed to and approved a New Year's Day editorial, jointly published by Rodong Sinmun (the daily newspaper of the Korean Workers' Party), Joson Imnigun (the newspaper of the Korean People's Army), and Chongnyon Jonwi (the newspaper of the Kim Il-sung Socialist Youth League).[90] At the extraordinary meeting with his top defence and security officials on 26 January 2013, Kim issued orders on preparations for a new nuclear test and introduced martial law in North Korea effective from 29 January.[91][92]

Nuclear threats

On 7 March 2013, North Korea threatened the United States with a 'pre-emptive nuclear attack',[93] and Kim Jong-un issued a detailed threat to "wipe out" Baengnyeong Island, the scene of previous naval clashes.[94] North Korea has revealed its plans for conducting nuclear strikes on U.S. cities, including Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.[95]

At a plenary meeting of the WPK Central Committee held on 31 March 2013 in the wake of war threats with South Korea, Kim Jong-un announced that North Korea will adopt "a new strategic line on carrying out economic construction and building nuclear armed forces simultaneously".[96]

Purges

Ri Yong-ho, Kim Yong-chun, U Tong-chuk, and Kim Jong-gak were handpicked to groom the young leader and were close confidants of Kim Jong-il. They have either been demoted or disappeared. One South Korean government official said Kim Jong-un is trying to "erase all traces of his father's rule" 11 months after stepping into power and "replacing top brass with officers who are loyal to him alone."[97] By the end of 2013, three defence ministers and four chiefs of the army's general staff had been replaced and five of the seven men who had escorted his father's hearse two years earlier had been purged,[98] with his uncle Jang Sung-taek one of the most prominent.[99] Jang Song Thaek is believed to have been executed by machine gun. It has been claimed that Kim Jong-un has also put to death members of Jang's family. According to multiple sources, Kim is attempting to completely destroy all traces of Jang's existence through "extensive executions" of his family, including the children and grandchildren of all close relatives. Those reportedly killed in Kim's purge include Jang's sister Jang Kye-sun, her husband and ambassador to Cuba, Jon Yong-jin, and Jang's nephew and ambassador to Malaysia, Jang Yong-chol. The nephew's two sons were also said to have been killed.[100] At the time of Jang's removal it was announced that "the discovery and purge of the Jang group... made our party and revolutionary ranks purer..."[101] and after his execution on 12 December 2013 state media warned that the army "will never pardon all those who disobey the order of the Supreme Commander."[102]

On 29 August 2013, The Chosun Ilbo reported that key members of the Moranbong Band were made to watch the execution by firing squad of Hyon Song-wol and members of the Unhasu Orchestra and Wangjaesan Light Music Band, on the orders of Kim Jong-un.[103] Kim had organized the Moranbong Band (Korean:모란봉악단), an all-female music group, on 7 July 2012.[104][105][106][107] Official state media denied that Hyon Song-wol had been executed, however.

Personality

Kenji Fujimoto, a Japanese chef who used to work as Kim Jong-il's personal cook, described Kim Jong-un as "a chip off the old block, a spitting image of his father in terms of face, body shape, and personality".[108]

The Washington Post reported in 2009 that Kim Jong-un's school friends recalled he "spent hours doing meticulous pencil drawings of Chicago Bulls superstar Michael Jordan."[109] He was obsessed with basketball and computer games.[110][111] On 26 February 2013, Kim Jong-un met ex-NBA star Dennis Rodman,[112] leading many reporters to speculate that Rodman was the first American that Kim had met.[113] Rodman described his trip to Kim Jong-un's private island, "It's like Hawaii or Ibiza, but he's the only one that lives there."[114] Kim Jong-un is reportedly a fan of Eric Clapton.[115]

In a 2012 news story, Business Insider reported, "Signs of a rise in luxury goods have been creeping out of North Korea since Kim Jong-un took over as last year. Just recently, Kim's wife Ri Sol-Ju was photographed holding what appeared to be an expensive Dior handbag, worth almost $1,594 – an average year's salary in North Korea."[116] According to diplomatic sources, "Kim Jong-un likes to drink and party all night like his father and ordered the [imported sauna] equipment to help him beat hangovers and fatigue."[117]

During Dennis Rodman's 26 February 2013 trip to North Korea, Vice Media correspondent Ryan Duffy observed that "the leader was “socially awkward” and didn’t make eye contact when shaking hands".[118]

In 2013, it was rumored that Kim Jong-un had received plastic surgery in order to modify his facial appearance.[119]

Assassination attempt

On 14 March 2013, reports surfaced from South Korean intelligence sources that Kim Jong-un had been the target of an assassination attempt.[120] The attempt was made by "disgruntled people inside the North" in response to the demotion of Reconnaissance General Bureau director Kim Yong-chol in November 2012. According to the unnamed intelligence source, the attempt was made in downtown Pyongyang and resulted in a firefight. The demotion was due to an internal power struggle between government factions.[121]

There had also been a rumor about an assassination attempt in 2012, while Kim Jong-un was visiting China.[122] United States officials claimed the rumors had no validity.[122]

Human rights violations

See also: Human rights in North KoreaMany reports indicate that the human rights violations under the leadership of Kim Jong-il[123] are continuing under Kim Jong-un.[124] Such violations include ordering the killing of defectors,[125] conducting public executions[126] and sending people to political prison camps.[127] It is assumed that Kim Jong-un was involved in the Cheonan sinking[128] and the bombardment of Yeonpyeong[129] to strengthen his military credentials and facilitate a successful transition of power from his father.[130]

The 2013 report on the situation of human rights in North Korea[131] by United Nations Special Rapporteur Marzuki Darusman proposed a United Nations commission of inquiry[132] to document the accountability of Kim Jong-un and other individuals in the North Korean government for alleged crimes against humanity.[133] The report of the commission of inquiry[134] was published in February 2014 and recommends to make him accountable for crimes against humanity at the International Criminal Court.[135]

One report by the Japanese Asia Press agency in January 2013 claimed that in North and South Hwanghae provinces more than 10,000 people had died of famine. Other international news agencies have begun circulating stories of cannibalism. One informant, based in South Hwanghae, said: "In my village in May, a man who killed his own two children and tried to eat them was executed by a firing squad."[136]

Name

Kim was formerly known as Kim Jong-woon or Kim Jung-woon.[47] His name was first reported as 김정운 (Hanja: ; lit. righteous cloud), possibly as a result of an error in transliteration; the Japanese language does not distinguish between 운 (/un/) and 은 (/ɯn/).[citation needed] The initial source of his name was Kim Jong-il's former personal chef, known by the pen name Kenji Fujimoto, who was among the few who had access to information about Kim's household from inside the government. Chinese media had named him as 김정은 (Hanja: ; lit. righteous grace).[3]

Family

[7][8]Portraits of Kim Jong Un's father and grandfather (Arirang Festival mass games in Pyongyang)On 25 July 2012 North Korean state media reported for the first time that Kim Jong-un is married to Ri Sol-ju (리설주).[137][138] Ri, who appears to be in her early 20s, had been accompanying Kim Jong-un to public appearances for several weeks prior to the announcement.[138] The BBC, quoting an analyst who spoke to The Korea Times of South Korea, reported that Kim Jong-il had hastily arranged his son's marriage after suffering a stroke in 2008. According to some sources, the two married in 2009 and Ri gave birth to a daughter in 2010.[139][140]

Kim Jong-un has two half-brothers and an older and younger full-brother (see below). He also has a younger sister, Kim Yo-jong, who was believed to be about 23 in 2012. She sometimes accompanies him.[141][142]

Fatherhood

In October 2012, there was speculation about Ri's public disappearance, and questions arose whether it was the result of a "breach of discipline" or "pregnancy,"[143][144] but she later reappeared with her spouse Kim at a military college.[143][144] It was followed by news reports in December 2012 that Ri was visibly pregnant, although North Korean officials did not comment on the speculation.[145][146][147]

In March 2013, former NBA basketball player Dennis Rodman visited Kim Jong-un in North Korea and on his return told the British tabloid newspaper The Sun that Ri had given birth to a healthy daughter.[148] One South Korean government source speculated that "doctors induced labor to make sure the child was born in 2012, which marked the 100th anniversary of North Korean founder Kim Il-sung," but no exact birth date has been confirmed.[148][149][150] Rodman told The Guardian in September 2013 that the couple's baby, a girl, is named Ju-ae.[151]

Select] family tree of North Korea's ruling] Kim family]]*view*talk
Kim Bo-hyon

1859–1955

Kim Hyong-jik

1884–1926

Kang Pan-sok

1892–1932

Kim Jong-suk

1919]–1949

Kim Il-sung

1912–1994

Kim Sung-ae

1928–?

Kim Yong-ju

1920–

Kim Young-sook

1947–

Song Hye-rim

1937–2002

Kim Jong-il

1941]–2011

Ko Yong-hui

1953–2004

Kim Ok

1964–

Kim Kyong-hui

1946–

Jang Sung-taek

1946–2013

Kim Pyong-il

1954–

Kim Sul-song

1974–

Kim Jong-nam

1971–

Kim Jong-chul

1981–

Kim Jong-un

1983]

Ri Sol-ju

c. 1986

Kim Yo-jong

1987–

Kim Han-sol

1995–

Kim Ju-ae

c. 2012]

  1. To keep the tree of manageable size, it omits some members, e. g., brothers and sisters of Kim Jong-il.
  2. Names of Supreme Leaders of the DPRK are in bold font.
  3. Korean names often have a variety of transliterations into English, which can be confusing. For example, "Kim Jong-chul" may also be written "Gim Jeong-cheol" or "Kim Jŏng-ch'ŏl" among many other variations. See Korean romanization for more information.
  4. Huss, Kan; Frost, Clay. "North Korea’s First Family: Mapping the personal and political drama of the Kim clan". msnbc.com. Retrieved 20 January 2013. (Confirms many, but not all, of the birth and death years. See individual articles for more references.)
  5. Official biographies of Kim Jong-suk and Kim Jong-il give birth years of 1917 and 1942, respectively, while Kim Jong-un's birth year may actually be 1984. Kim Ju-ae may have been born in late 2012 or early 2013.

See also

[9] North Korea portal
[10] Biography portal
[11] Politics portal